Michael Fogleman


Heightmap Meshing August 2019

253 C++ 3D Meshing

Convert any grayscale heightmap into a 3D triangle mesh.

This is a modern implementation of a nice algorithm from the 1995 paper Fast Polygonal Approximation of Terrains and Height Fields by Garland and Heckbert. The meshes produced by hmm satisfy the Delaunay condition and can satisfy a specified maximal error or maximal number of triangles or vertices. It's also very fast!

If you've done any 3D game development, 3D printing, or other such things, you've likely wanted to convert a grayscale heightmap image into a 3D mesh. The naive way is pretty simple but generates huge meshes with millions of triangles. After hacking my way through various solutions over the years, I finally decided I needed to write a good tool for this purpose. hmm is the result!




  • C++11 or higher
  • glm


brew install glm # on macOS
sudo apt-get install libglm-dev # on Ubuntu / Debian

git clone https://github.com/fogleman/hmm.git
cd hmm
make install


heightmap meshing utility
usage: hmm --zscale=float [options] ... infile outfile.stl
  -z, --zscale           z scale relative to x & y (float)
  -x, --zexagg           z exaggeration (float [=1])
  -e, --error            maximum triangulation error (float [=0.001])
  -t, --triangles        maximum number of triangles (int [=0])
  -p, --points           maximum number of vertices (int [=0])
  -b, --base             solid base height (float [=0])
      --invert           invert heightmap
      --blur             gaussian blur sigma (int [=0])
      --border-size      border size in pixels (int [=0])
      --border-height    border z height (float [=1])
      --normal-map       path to write normal map png (string [=])
  -q, --quiet            suppress console output
  -?, --help             print this message

hmm supports a variety of file formats like PNG, JPG, etc. for the input heightmap. The output is always a binary STL file. The only other required parameter is -z, which specifies how much to scale the Z axis in the output mesh.

hmm input.png output.stl -z ZSCALE

You can also provide a maximal allowed error, number of triangles, or number of vertices. (If multiple are specified, the first one reached is used.)

hmm input.png output.stl -z 100 -e 0.001 -t 1000000

Visual Guide

Click on the image below to see examples of various command line arguments. You can try these examples yourself with this heightmap: gale.png.

Z Scale

The required -z parameter defines the distance between a fully black pixel and a fully white pixel in the vertical Z axis, with units equal to one pixel width or height. For example, if each pixel in the heightmap represented a 1x1 meter square area, and the vertical range of the heightmap was 100 meters, then -z 100 should be used.

Z Exaggeration

The -x parameter is simply an extra multiplier on top of the provided Z scale. It is provided as a convenience so you don't have to do multiplication in your head just to exaggerate by, e.g. 2x, since Z scales are often derived from real world data and can have strange values like 142.2378.

Max Error

The -e parameter defines the maximum allowed error in the output mesh, as a percentage of the total mesh height. For example, if -e 0.01 is used, then no pixel will have an error of more than 1% of the distance between a fully black pixel and a fully white pixel. This means that for an 8-bit input image, an error of e = 1 / 256 ~= 0.0039 will ensure that no pixel has an error greater than one full grayscale unit. (It may still be desireable to use a lower value like 0.5 / 256.)

Base Height

When the -b option is used to create a solid mesh, it defines the height of the base before the lowest part of the heightmesh appears, as a percentage of the heightmap's height. For example, if -z 100 -b 0.5 were used, then the final mesh would be about 150 units tall (if a fully white pixel exists in the input).


A border can be added to the mesh with the --border-size and --border-height flags. The heightmap will be padded by border-size pixels before triangulating. The (pre-scaled) Z value of the border can be set with border-height which defaults to 1.


A Gaussian blur can be applied with the --blur flag. This is particularly useful for noisy images.

The heightmap can be inverted with the --invert flag. This is useful for lithophanes.

Normal Map

A full resolution normal map can be generated with the --normal-map argument. This will save a normal map as an RGB PNG to the specified path. This is useful for rendering higher resolution bumps and details while using a lower resolution triangle mesh.